The principal goal of graduate study is to train the student to conduct original research. Students will begin with an orientation, when they are assigned an academic adviser for their first and second years. After that period, students will choose a thesis adviser and begin thesis research.

First Two Years

Physics and astronomy graduate students at Johns Hopkins are involved in research starting in their first semester in the program.


In the beginning of every fall semester, the department organizes a series of events (graduate orientation, various seminars and presentations) to provide an in-depth overview of research activities in the department. During a two-day research jamboree, students discuss possible research projects with multiple faculty members either in individual meetings or in a group setting. These events help familiarize the student with the department, with the faculty and with the expectations of the graduate program.

To help guide students through the first two years of the program, all entering graduate students are assigned an academic adviser (“The 1st/2nd year advisor”).  This adviser works with the student until a thesis adviser has been appointed, generally during the summer at the end of 2nd year. During the orientation, the 1st/2nd year advisor reviews the program with the students as a group, and is available during the semester for individual advice. There is a more formal review of each student’s progress at the end of the semesters.

Getting Started with Research

By the end of September, the student chooses their first research adviser among the professorial faculty and starts working on the first-semester research project. If the proposed research advisor does not hold a primary appointment as a tenure-track or research faculty member in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, the form must be co-signed by a PHA faculty member, who will provide mentorship (relevant department faculty members list). This requirement holds for all semesters of research. The first-semester project continues through intersession in January. The spring-semester research project continues until the end of the spring semester. The summer semester lasts from June through August. Students may continue with one adviser through the entire first year, or they may choose to cycle through several different research advisers from one semester to the next.

This system of semester projects continues during the first two years of the program, when students also complete required coursework. The nature of these first- and second-year research projects varies from student to student, from adviser to adviser and from one sub-field of physics to another. Some may be self-contained research projects that lead to published scientific papers and may or may not be related to the thesis research in later years. Others may comprise reading or independent-study projects to develop background for subsequent research. In other cases, they may be first steps in a longer-term research project.

This system accommodates both the students who have chosen the direction of their thesis work before graduate school and those who would like to try a few different things before committing to a long-term project. As students get more familiar with the department and the research opportunities, they zero in on their thesis topic and find a thesis adviser. This may happen any time during the first two years, and students are required to find a thesis adviser by the beginning of the third year.

Semester Reports

At the end of every semester, students provide a written research summary of their progress. These reports should be a 2-3 page write-up succinctly describing the research performed during the semester.

Second Year Research Presentation

Furthermore, at the beginning of the second year, each student takes an oral research exam that consists of a 15-minute presentation to a committee of three faculty members about the research they have carried out in their first year and questions from the committee about the research and related scientific background.

Finding Thesis Advisor

Securing a mutual agreement with a thesis advisor is one of the most important milestones of our graduate program. Students must find a thesis advisor and submit the thesis advisor form before the first day of their 3rd year. The form represents a long-term commitment and serious efforts in planning and communication between the student and the advisor. If the proposed thesis advisor does not hold a primary appointment as a tenure-track or research faculty member in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, the form must be co-signed by a PHA faculty member, who will serve as the departmental advisor of record (relevant department faculty members list).

Students should start their thesis planning no later than the beginning of the summer after the second year. By this time in the program, many students have identified projects and advisors of interest during their research rotations in the 1st and 2nd years. In these cases, students should discuss with their prospective advisors their mutual expectations for the scope and the timeline of the thesis and when an agreement is reached, submit the thesis advisor form. If by the summer after their 2nd year, the student does not have a clear idea of who they want to work with for their thesis, they should reach out to different faculty of interest, to 1st / 2nd year academic advisors, and/or to the Chair of the graduate program committee (Director of graduate studies). In these cases the student’s goal for the summer is to identify a thesis advisor and to reach an agreement regarding a thesis topic. In all cases, the thesis advisor form must be submitted before the 1st day of the 3rd year.

Thesis Research

Graduate Board Oral Exam

After the student chooses a thesis adviser, together they define the scope of the thesis, and the student presents the thesis proposal at the Graduate Board Oral Examination (GBO). The GBO should be taken in the fall of the third year of the program. The committee consists of internal and external examiners from our department and from other departments and includes the thesis adviser. A week before the examination, the student submits a written thesis proposal to the committee (typically 4-5 pages in journal format). The examination starts with a 20-minute presentation of the research proposal by the student, and then the committee members take turns asking questions which are usually (but not always) related to the proposal.

By this point in the program, the students have had many opportunities to practice their presentation skills and answering questions, including the research exam in the beginning of the second year and the graduate-student journal club.

Thesis Committee

Upon passing the GBO, the student forms his/her thesis committee consisting of three faculty members in the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (PHA). At least two should be tenure track faculty with primary appointments in PHA. An external advisor may be added as the fourth member of the committee. These committees function as extended advisory bodies, so that students have the opportunity to discuss their progress and problems with several faculty. They also conduct a formal annual review of each student’s progress.

The thesis committee is an excellent avenue for students to get input from the faculty on their advance toward their degrees, to get broader access to faculty, and to resolve any difficulties that may arise during the completion of the thesis research.

The Annual Review

The annual review takes place during the second part of February. Students present a written report (1–3 pages long) to all three members of their thesis committee. The report succinctly describes the accomplishments and difficulties of the last 12 months and plans for the following academic year. The report incorporates future milestones and the estimated time to accomplish them including expected date of thesis defense. Major changes in the scope or direction of the project should also be detailed.

During the next two weeks, students meet with their thesis committees to discuss the report. After the meeting, the thesis committee provides written feedback to help the student on his/her progress toward a degree.

The Dissertation and Thesis Defense

At the conclusion of thesis research, the student submits the complete written dissertation to the University and defends the dissertation before a faculty committee. Thesis defense typically lasts two hours and consists of a 40-minute presentation by the student, followed by questions from the committee on the thesis research and related scientific background.